Douglass, H. Paul. 1927. The Church in the Changing City. New York: Doran.

Ebaugh, Helen Rose, Jennifer O’Brien, and Janet Saltzman Chafetz. 2000. “The Social Ecology of Residential Patterns and Membership in Immigrant Churches.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 39:107-116.

Eiesland, Nancy. 2000. A Particular Place: Urban Restructuring and Religious Ecology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Farnsley II, Arthur Emery. 2003. Rising Expectations: Urban Congregations, Welfare Reform, and Civic Life. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.

Farnsley II, Arthur Emery, N. J. Demerath III, Etan Diamond, Mary L. Mapes, and Elfriede Wedam. 2004. Sacred Circles and Public Squares: The Multi-centering of American Religion. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Gamm, Gerald. 1999. Urban Exodus: Why the Jews Left Boston and the Catholics Stayed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Rural Congregations

Brewer, Earl D. C., Jr Theodore H. Runyon, Barbara B. Pittard, and Harold McSwain. 1967. Protestant Parish: A Case Study of Rural and Urban Parish Patterns. Atlanta: Communicative Arts Press.

Lischer, Richard. 2001. Open Secrets: A Spiritual Journey Through a Country Church. New York: Doubleday.

Urban Congregations

Carnes, Tony, and Anna Karpathakis (Eds.). 2001. New York Glory: Religions in the City. New York: New York University Press.

Livezey, Lowell W. 2000. Public Religion and Urban Transformation : Faith in the City. New York: New York University Press.

Orsi, Robert A. 1999. Gods of the City. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.

Wellman, James A. 1999. The Gold Coast Church and the Ghetto: Christ and Culture in Mainline Protestantism. Champagne, Ill.: University of Illinois Press.